Population and Employment
Structure & Growth
Reasons for Population Increase:
Rate of Natural Increase = Birth Rate - Death Rate
• Child labour is associated with the increase in population as more children can bring more money home.
• The span of reproductivity increases because of early age marriages.
• On a religious basis, family planning programs have received resistance from religious groups.
• People’s desire to conceive a son led to more population.
• The refugees from Afghanistan also contributed to the rapid growth of the population.
• Lack of literacy since people do not understand the causes of population growth.
• Government's inconsistent policies.
Problems Faced Because of Population Growth:
• Unemployment and underemployment.
• No security for food.
• Increased workload on health facilities including medicines, hospitals, and doctors.
• Shortage of water, electricity, educational institutions.
• Increase in child labour.
• It burdens housing facilities as well as transport resources.
• Increase in terrorism and crime rate.
Efforts Needed for Balanced Population Growth:
• Awareness programs should be started by the Government and NGOs regarding the bad influences of having more children in urban and rural areas both.
• Affordable contraceptives should be provided to the people.
• Child labour should be banned to discourage people from having more children.
• The necessary measures should be taken for the increase in literacy rate.
• Emphasis should be put on the promotion of female education.
The Demographic Transition Model:
Stage 1 (1905 – 1935):
• The birth rate and death rate both were high during this period.
• The population growth was slow.
Stage 2 (1936 – 1970):
• During this period, the birth rate was high.
• However, the death rate became slow because of an increase in medical & health facilities.
Stage 3 (1971 – 2013):
• There was a decrease in birth rate because of literacy, career-oriented females and family planning programs.
• The death rate was also low.
• The living standard was improved.
Stage 4 (2014 – 2040):
• If the birth rate and death rate remain slow then Pakistan will achieve a stable stage.
• Population structure is usually represented using population pyramids.
• It is the percentage of males and females in various age groups.
• It indicates the following stats:
- High birth rate resulting in high dependency.
- Low death rate.
- The minor increase in life expectancy.
Effect on Economy & Development by Present Day Population Structure:
• An increase in birth rate puts the burden on the country's economic resources leading to negative economic growth.
• To meet the basic needs, Pakistan needs to start many development projects.
• The age group (15 to 60 years) with less population also negatively affects the economy.
• Pakistan is having a high population proportion of old people that can further burden the economy.
Pakistan’s Projected Population Structure:
• In the next 20 years, Pakistan will experience a further downfall in the birth rate and death rate.
• Age growth (15 to 75 years) will comprise a larger proportion of fulfilling the need for skilled labour.
• The high aged population will still be a burden, but they can be a guide to young people too.
• The lower birth rate will also decrease the dependency rate.
• It is defined as the individuals who are ten years or above and worked for an hour from the reference period.
• These individuals are known as self-employed or paid-employed.
• The employed workforce can be divided into the following three sectors:
- Primary Sector
- Secondary Sector
- Tertiary Sector
• The labour force involved in the primary sector is responsible for extracting raw materials from the sea or earth.
• It accumulates to 45% of the employed individuals.
• It is the workforce that processes and manufactures raw materials.
• It accumulates to 14% of the labour force.
• It is the sector that deals with services including banking, administration, education, and others.
• It accumulates to 41% of the workforce.
• It represents the individual who is unable to find a paid job.
• It is when the number of workers is greater than the needed workers.
Causes of Unemployment:
• Unemployment is a consequence of authorities' inability to create the needed opportunities for the skilled and unskilled workforce.
• It creates a huge gap between demand and supply of labour force.
• Disguised unemployment in the primary sector makes it a challenge to come up with an actual figure of the demand and supply.
• High population growth.
• Changing technologies.
• Rural-urban migration.
• Political instability.
How Literacy & Training can Solve Unemployment Issue?
• Improved literacy rates will reduce pressure on the primary sector.
• Literate workers can work more efficiently as compared to unskilled and illiterate workers.
• If literate workers can meet the specialized labour demand than there will be no demand and supply gap.
• Trained and skilled workers can find better opportunities locally and abroad.
• Literate workers will also understand the importance of a quality lifestyle and having a small family.
Employment Generation Through Literacy & Training:
• Agricultural training institutions should be established.
• Agriculture should be taught as a primary subject in these institutions.
• In these institutions, practical training must be given with the help of model farms.
• Workshops should be helpful for the technical training of repairing agricultural machinery.
• Training centers for cottage industries should also be established.
• Specialized training must be given considering manufacturer requirements.
• In the training, basic knowledge about the plant and its functions must be provided.
• The training must also guide people about the maintenance of machinery and plant.
• The necessary emergency and safety procedures must be taught.
• They must be taught the handling of advanced machinery with practical demonstration.
• Trainees should be facilitated to acquire international standard training from abroad.
• The managers of these plants must be given training regarding the management.
Effects of Unemployment on Economic Development:
• It results in low GDP and GNP because fewer people are generating income.
• The high unemployment rate also results in low wages and salaries i.e. less tax collection.
• It decreases the production growth of goods as demand also decreases because of employment.
• Because low-income generation, the government often increases the rate of tax collection.
• It reduces government funds and as a result foreign and local investment also reduces.
• Unemployment also increases the dependency rate.
Density & Movement of Population
Factors Affecting the Distribution and Density of Population:
• The natural topography affects the population i.e. people prefer to live on flat or undulating terrains or at doabs.
• People prefer moderate temperatures and rainfall.
• The soil that is fertile, deep and spread by rivers also attracts population.
• People prefer constant water supply, therefore, areas close to rivers and lakes have a high population.
• People prefer natural routes including the confluence of valleys, mountain gaps, and natural harbors.
• The efficient transport including rail, road, and air also attracts people to settle down.
• The supply of HEP and thermal stations.
• Government policies, port facilities, and tourism development are also some factors that affect the population.
• People like to live in areas that have better accommodation, health, and education facilities.
• The movement of people from one location to another is called migration.
• Migration can be international or internal.
• Internal migration happens within the country e.g. movement of people from rural to the urban area.
• International migration involves the movement of people to other countries.
• Pakistan is facing a rise in rural to urban migration.
Rural Push Factors:
• Unemployment, the burden on land and ownership and division of land among sons.
• The poor quality of life and overpopulation.
• Less food production and the issues of waterlogging, salinity and soil erosion.
• The rise of mechanization resulted in unemployment.
• Natural disasters e.g. floods.
Urban Pull Factors:
• The urban areas have better employment opportunities.
• The urban areas offer an improved lifestyle.
• It has more food sources.
• The entertainment factor also attracts people there.
• It has better civic services e.g. education, health, transport, etc.
Influence of Rural-Urban Migration:
• Due to increase movement to urban areas, the living condition has deteriorated.
• The health hazards in cities have increased as well as the slums.
• The civic services are also overburdened.
• Water, land and air pollution has increased.
• The traffic situation is worsened.
• The crime rate and terrorism have increased.
• Depression, child abuse, drug usage has become a common problem.
• The suicide rate because of unemployment has also increased.
• The gender-balanced has been disturbed in both urban and rural areas.
• It is usually a government-sponsored program.
• It encourages people to create self-employment and growing their food.
• It offers shelter to low-income families and helps in reducing poverty.
• It motivates people to take responsibility for cleaning the area resulting in a healthy environment.
• People are promoted and provided with financial aid to start their businesses as well as to improve their standard of living.
• People take care of their areas' security, as a result, the crime rate reduces.
• Recreational facilities can be built.
• In localities like this, NGOs also provide their share of help and support.
• Construction material is very expensive leading to failure of these schemes.
• Low-income families don't have savings to contribute to these schemes.
• Corruption is high in these schemes.
• These schemes are very slow as there are financial constraints and administration delays.
• These projects lack good leadership.
• These schemes also attract more rural to urban migration.
• Government changes as well as political stability effects or delay these schemes.
Reasons for Out-Migration from Pakistan:
• The lack of employment opportunities.
• The rise of development projects in the Middle East during the 80s and 90s.
• The high standard lifestyle of foreign countries like the USA.
• The increase in crime rate and corruption in Pakistan.
• Canada is under the threat of depopulation and its policy is attracting more people from countries like Pakistan to migrate.
• The political tensions.
Effects of Out-Migration:
• Increase in remittance.
• Improvement in Information Technology.
• Pressure on limited employment relieved.
• Increased investment in Pakistan by overseas Pakistanis.
• Cultural interchange.
Causes of Seasonal Migration:
• The practice of Transhumance in the north-western and northern areas of Pakistan.
• During the drought season, there is a shortage of food and employment; people migrate to urban areas during this time.
• During flood season, people migrate to safe locations.
• During the harvesting season, people migrate to farms in search of employment.
• Agro-based factories also hire workers on a seasonal basis.
Sustainable Population Growth:
• A population can be supported by the country’s economic resources all year round in known as the sustainable population.
How can it be maintained?
• By starting awareness programs regarding the consequences of the rapid growth of population.
• By attaining resource and population balance.
• By promoting family planning programs.