Types of Agricultural System:
1. Small Scale Subsistence:
2. Cash Crop Farming:
2. Livestock Farming:
• Animalsare reared for commercial and family use.
• Cows,bullocks, sheep, goats, etc. are the animals that are reared in livestockfarming.
Types of Crops
• They are sown in the winter season’s beginning i.e. October to November.
• They are harvested in early summers i.e. April to May.
• These crops include barley wheat, pulses, grams, and oilseeds.
• They are sown in the summer season i.e. April to June.
• They are harvested at the beginning of winter i.e. October to November.
• These crops include sugarcane, rice, cotton, millet, and maize.
• The cultivation of these crops depends on rainfall.
• These crops are grown to sell and generate profit.
• These crops are grown by and for the farmers and their families.
• It requires warm temperature for cultivation i.e. 10-20⁰ for sowing and 25-30⁰ for harvesting.
• It requires a moderate amount of rainfall i.e. 325 mm to 625 mm.
• The soil should be alluvial, and land should be well-drained.
• It requires a dry harvesting season and the rainfall of October & November also helps in its growth.
Main Areas for Wheat:
• The wheat grows in Nawabshah, entire Punjab and Indus Plains.
Method of Cultivation:
• The field is ploughed.
• Wheat seeds are sown in the ground directly.
• It does not require too much water to cultivate.
• After one month, the first irrigation is required.
• Second irrigation is done one month before harvesting.
• It takes a total of three months for wheat harvest.
• The harvesting requires extensive manual work because grains needed to be separated from the chaff.
• Stored or transported for sale.
• It required hot temperature i.e. 20-30⁰ while cultivating.
• It required dry and warm weather to harvest.
• The soil needs to be claying or loaming and water retentive.
• The lands need to be flat.
• It required a huge amount of rainfall i.e. 1270 mm at least.
• The ideal rainfall is 2000 mm, but Pakistan has insufficient rainfall.
Main Areas for Rice:
• Shekhupur, Larkana, Gujranwala, and Sialkot.
Method of Cultivation:
• The seeds are sown into nurseries or beds.
• When the plants reached a height of 9 inches, it is replanted.
• Replantation is done in a flooded ploughed field.
• The depth of the flooded ploughed field should be 30 cm to 37 cm.
• Water needs to be full until the rice is not fully ready to be harvested.
• Once the rice is ripe, water is drained, and harvesting begins.
• Depending on the size of the farm, threshing can be done using machines or animals.
• The rice then goes to mills for polish and packaging.
• It requires hot temperatures during cultivation i.e. 25⁰ to 35⁰.
• For harvesting, it requires dry weather.
• It needs the soil to be alluvial and deep.
• The land needs to be flat.
• It requires a high amount of rainfall i.e. 1000 mm.
Main Areas for Cotton:
• Nawabshah, Bahawalpur, Multan, Bahawalnagar, and Rahimyarkhan.
Method of Cultivation:
• In April – May seeds are sown at 30 cm to 45 cm apart.
• First irrigation takes place after a month.
• After two months from 1st irrigation, second irrigation is needed.
• In October and November the balls of cotton ripe completely.
• These cotton balls are picked and transported to grinning mills.
• At grinning mills, seeds are separated from lint.
• It requires hot temperatures for cultivation i.e. 25⁰ to 35⁰.
• It required dry weather for harvesting.
• The soil needs to be alluvial and deep.
• The land needs to be flat and well-drained.
• A huge amount of rainfall is required i.e. 1520 mm.
Main Areas for Sugarcane:
• Faisalabad, Nawabshah, Peshawar, and Mardan.
Method of Cultivation:
• Stalks are planted from April to May which are 30 cm apart.
• It requires regular irrigation and harvesting.
• The sugarcane is grown by ratooning.
• Harvesting requires manual labour.
• After it is cut, it is transported to sugar mills.
• The sugarcanes are scrubbed with chalk to remove any dirt and smells.
• The juice is extracted from the sugarcanes with the help of heavy rollers.
• The juice is processed to produce sugar.
• In village gur and brown sugar is also produced from sugarcane juice.
• Molasses and Bagasse are two important by-products.
• It is a Kharif crop.
• It is a food grain.
• It is also used as a raw material for oil production.
• It is used in the production of custard powder, cornflour, etc.
• It is rich in protein.
• It is widely used in the diet plan.
• It fertilizes the soil by fixing nitrogen.
• It is a low-value crop.
• Some important pulses include Mash, Masoor, Grams, and Mung.
• In Pakistan, there are two millets Jowar and Bajra.
• They are used as fodder for poultry and animals.
• They are also used as coarser cereals after grounding.
• Pakistan does not produce enough oilseeds.
• The oilseeds produce are rape seeds, sunflower, soya bean, sarson, mustard, sesame, rai, castor, and linseed.
• Castor seeds and linseeds are also used in industries.
• Only 32% of the demand for edible oil is catered with local production.
• It is grown in KPK mainly.
• Peshawar and Mardan are the main regions where tobacco grows.
Livestock Farming Importance of Livestock Farming:
• Animal help in the ploughing, threshing, and harvesting of the crops in farming.
• They are also used to transport materials.
• Livestock provides food. e.g. buffaloes and cows produce milk, goats and cattle produce meat when slaughtered and chickens produce eggs.
• Livestock also provides raw materials like bones, animal hairs, wool and skins to produce rugs, footwear, leather products, and carpets.
• In the international market, products produced in the cottage industry has high demand.
• Livestock's contribution to the GDP is about 10%.
Factors Affecting Livestock Farming:
• Shortage of facilities for the proper care of livestock e.g. vets, vaccinations, etc.
• Lack of grazing ground led to overgrazing that damages grasslands.
• Animal fodder is expensive.
• Lack of proper marketing means for milk and other livestock products.
• Lack of breeding quality.
• Price gap of livestock in urban and rural areas.
• Some measures have been taken to promote livestock and poultry industry.
• Scientific breeding methods have been introduced e.g. crossbreeding.
• For calves, early diets have been introduced to save milk for human consumption.
• For proper vets, individuals have been trained.
• To fatten cows for meat and milk, programs have been introduced.
• Livestock research farms have been improved.
• Vaccination facilities have been improved.
Factors Affecting Production
Natural Factors Affecting Agriculture:
• The land needs to be flatter for better output.
• The output decreases as land gets steeper and higher.
• Alluvial and Loess soil produces the best output when farming.
• If adequate rainfall is received, then crops can be cultivated without irrigation.
• The northern areas of Pakistan including the Potwar Plateau received adequate rainfall.
• Temperature plays an integral role.
• In the northern areas, crops/fruit grow from April to September only.
• Whereas in southern parts, fruits ripe all year round.
Pests and Diseases:
• If the preventive measures are not taken, then crops can be attacked by diseases and pests.
• They can reduce agricultural output.
• Irrigation facilities help in cultivation if there is not enough rainfall.
• Using the irrigation system, the deserts of Thar and Thal have been reclaimed for cultivation.
• However, canal irrigation can cause waterlogging and salinity issues.
• They can increase agricultural productions.
• Machines have also made farming easy e.g. threshers, tillers, tractors, etc.
• Mechanization can reduce farmers' costs by preventing losses.
HYVs (High-Yielding Seed Varieties):
• They can also increase the output by 10 to 20 %.
• These are used widely in commercial farms.
• If proper marketing is done, it will increase profit.
• It will include processing, storage, transport, wholesale and retail.
Plant Protection Programs:
• Aerial and ground spraying of pesticides can prevent pests and diseases attack.
• The Plant Protection Department is also producing treated seeds.
• Over time, several governments came up with land reforms to:
- Break the holdings of big landlords.
- To make land distribution equitable.
- To protect the rights of tenants.
- For the consolidation of holding.
Figure (i) Land Reforms of Pakistan
Government’s Efforts to Improve Agricultural Production:
• Following are the steps were taken by the government:
- Encouraging the use of fertilizers by increasing its production.
- Regulations are introduced for the quality of seeds.
- Distribution of improved seeds.
- Initiation of the Plant Protection Department responsible for regular checks for pests, giving guidance and conducting aerial pesticide sprays.
- Providing financial aid to farming communities.
Sustainable Agricultural Development:
• For sustainability following steps can be taken:
- Environmentally friendly technologies and the system must be developed.
- Waterlogging salinity issues must be addressed.
- The soil fertility measure must be taken seriously e.g. afforestation.
- Cutting of forests must be stopped to prevent soil erosion.
- Over cropping and multi-cropping should be prevented as it can exhaust soil nutrients.
- Organic farming should be encouraged as it can make the soil more productive.
- Irrigation systems must be used to reclaim desert areas to agriculture.