Agricultural Development


Pakistan Studies 2059

Agricultural Development

Agricultural Development

Types of Agricultural System: 

There are three types of agricultural systems in Pakistan.

1. Small scale subsistence

2. Cash Crop Farming

3. Livestock Farming

1. Small Scale Subsistence:

It produces raw materials and food. 
Generally, family members do the manual work. 

The produced is usually consumed by the people who work on these farms. 


2. Cash Crop Farming:

On these farms, crops are grown for sale. 

High yields of crops and maximum profit. 

The crop products include cotton, rice-wheat. Sugarcane, tobacco, and oilseeds. 

2. Livestock Farming:

  Animalsare reared for commercial and family use.

  Cows,bullocks, sheep, goats, etc. are the animals that are reared in livestockfarming.

 Types of Crops 

Rabi Crops: 

They are sown in the winter season’s beginning i.e. October to November. 

They are harvested in early summers i.e. April to May. 

These crops include barley wheat, pulses, grams, and oilseeds. 

Kharif Crops: 

They are sown in the summer season i.e. April to June. 

They are harvested at the beginning of winter i.e. October to November. 

These crops include sugarcane, rice, cotton, millet, and maize. 

Barani Crops: 

The cultivation of these crops depends on rainfall. 

Cash Crops: 

These crops are grown to sell and generate profit. 

Subsistence Crops: 

These crops are grown by and for the farmers and their families. 


Crops Farming 



It requires warm temperature for cultivation i.e. 10-20⁰ for sowing and 25-30⁰ for harvesting. 

It requires a moderate amount of rainfall i.e. 325 mm to 625 mm. 

The soil should be alluvial, and land should be well-drained. 

It requires a dry harvesting season and the rainfall of October & November also helps in its growth. 

Main Areas for Wheat: 

The wheat grows in Nawabshah, entire Punjab and Indus Plains. 

Method of Cultivation: 

The field is ploughed. 

Wheat seeds are sown in the ground directly. 

It does not require too much water to cultivate. 

After one month, the first irrigation is required. 

Second irrigation is done one month before harvesting. 

It takes a total of three months for wheat harvest. 

The harvesting requires extensive manual work because grains needed to be separated from the chaff. 

Stored or transported for sale. 



It required hot temperature i.e. 20-30⁰ while cultivating. 

It required dry and warm weather to harvest. 

The soil needs to be claying or loaming and water retentive. 

The lands need to be flat. 

It required a huge amount of rainfall i.e. 1270 mm at least. 

The ideal rainfall is 2000 mm, but Pakistan has insufficient rainfall. 

Main Areas for Rice: 

Shekhupur, Larkana, Gujranwala, and Sialkot. 

Method of Cultivation: 

The seeds are sown into nurseries or beds. 

When the plants reached a height of 9 inches, it is replanted. 

Replantation is done in a flooded ploughed field. 

The depth of the flooded ploughed field should be 30 cm to 37 cm. 

Water needs to be full until the rice is not fully ready to be harvested. 

Once the rice is ripe, water is drained, and harvesting begins. 

Depending on the size of the farm, threshing can be done using machines or animals. 

The rice then goes to mills for polish and packaging. 



It requires hot temperatures during cultivation i.e. 25⁰ to 35⁰. 

For harvesting, it requires dry weather. 

It needs the soil to be alluvial and deep. 

The land needs to be flat. 

It requires a high amount of rainfall i.e. 1000 mm. 

Main Areas for Cotton: 

Nawabshah, Bahawalpur, Multan, Bahawalnagar, and Rahimyarkhan. 

Method of Cultivation: 

In April – May seeds are sown at 30 cm to 45 cm apart. 

First irrigation takes place after a month. 

After two months from 1st irrigation, second irrigation is needed. 

In October and November the balls of cotton ripe completely. 

These cotton balls are picked and transported to grinning mills. 

At grinning mills, seeds are separated from lint. 



It requires hot temperatures for cultivation i.e. 25⁰ to 35⁰. 

It required dry weather for harvesting. 

The soil needs to be alluvial and deep. 

The land needs to be flat and well-drained. 

A huge amount of rainfall is required i.e. 1520 mm. 

Main Areas for Sugarcane: 

Faisalabad, Nawabshah, Peshawar, and Mardan. 


Method of Cultivation: 

Stalks are planted from April to May which are 30 cm apart. 

It requires regular irrigation and harvesting. 

The sugarcane is grown by ratooning. 

Harvesting requires manual labour. 

After it is cut, it is transported to sugar mills. 

The sugarcanes are scrubbed with chalk to remove any dirt and smells. 

The juice is extracted from the sugarcanes with the help of heavy rollers. 

The juice is processed to produce sugar. 

In village gur and brown sugar is also produced from sugarcane juice. 

Molasses and Bagasse are two important by-products. 

Other Crops 


It is a Kharif crop. 

It is a food grain. 

It is also used as a raw material for oil production. 

It is used in the production of custard powder, cornflour, etc. 


It is rich in protein. 

It is widely used in the diet plan. 

It fertilizes the soil by fixing nitrogen. 

It is a low-value crop. 

Some important pulses include Mash, Masoor, Grams, and Mung. 


In Pakistan, there are two millets Jowar and Bajra. 

They are used as fodder for poultry and animals. 

They are also used as coarser cereals after grounding. 


Pakistan does not produce enough oilseeds. 

The oilseeds produce are rape seeds, sunflower, soya bean, sarson, mustard, sesame, rai, castor, and linseed. 

Castor seeds and linseeds are also used in industries. 

Only 32% of the demand for edible oil is catered with local production. 


It is grown in KPK mainly. 

Peshawar and Mardan are the main regions where tobacco grows.  


Livestock Farming Importance of Livestock Farming: 

Animal help in the ploughing, threshing, and harvesting of the crops in farming. 

They are also used to transport materials. 

Livestock provides food. e.g. buffaloes and cows produce milk, goats and cattle produce meat when slaughtered and chickens produce eggs. 

Livestock also provides raw materials like bones, animal hairs, wool and skins to produce rugs, footwear, leather products, and carpets. 

In the international market, products produced in the cottage industry has high demand. 

Livestock's contribution to the GDP is about 10%. 

Factors Affecting Livestock Farming: 

Shortage of facilities for the proper care of livestock e.g. vets, vaccinations, etc. 

Lack of grazing ground led to overgrazing that damages grasslands. 

Animal fodder is expensive. 

Lack of proper marketing means for milk and other livestock products. 

Lack of breeding quality. 

Price gap of livestock in urban and rural areas. 

Governments’ Role: 

Some measures have been taken to promote livestock and poultry industry. 

Scientific breeding methods have been introduced e.g. crossbreeding. 

For calves, early diets have been introduced to save milk for human consumption. 

For proper vets, individuals have been trained. 

To fatten cows for meat and milk, programs have been introduced. 

Livestock research farms have been improved. 

Vaccination facilities have been improved. 


Factors Affecting Production

Natural Factors Affecting Agriculture: 


The land needs to be flatter for better output. 

The output decreases as land gets steeper and higher. 


Alluvial and Loess soil produces the best output when farming. 


If adequate rainfall is received, then crops can be cultivated without irrigation. 

The northern areas of Pakistan including the Potwar Plateau received adequate rainfall. 


Temperature plays an integral role. 

In the northern areas, crops/fruit grow from April to September only. 

Whereas in southern parts, fruits ripe all year round. 

Pests and Diseases: 

If the preventive measures are not taken, then crops can be attacked by diseases and pests. 

They can reduce agricultural output. 

Human Factors: 

Irrigation Facilities: 

Irrigation facilities help in cultivation if there is not enough rainfall. 

Using the irrigation system, the deserts of Thar and Thal have been reclaimed for cultivation. 

However, canal irrigation can cause waterlogging and salinity issues. 


They can increase agricultural productions. 


Machines have also made farming easy e.g. threshers, tillers, tractors, etc. 

Mechanization can reduce farmers' costs by preventing losses. 

HYVs (High-Yielding Seed Varieties): 

They can also increase the output by 10 to 20 %. 

These are used widely in commercial farms. 


If proper marketing is done, it will increase profit. 

It will include processing, storage, transport, wholesale and retail. 

Plant Protection Programs: 

Aerial and ground spraying of pesticides can prevent pests and diseases attack. 

The Plant Protection Department is also producing treated seeds. 

Land Reforms: 

• Over time, several governments came up with land reforms to: 

- Break the holdings of big landlords. 

- To make land distribution equitable. 

- To protect the rights of tenants. 

- For the consolidation of holding. 

Figure (i) Land Reforms of Pakistan

Government’s Efforts to Improve Agricultural Production: 

• Following are the steps were taken by the government: 

- Encouraging the use of fertilizers by increasing its production. 

- Regulations are introduced for the quality of seeds. 

- Distribution of improved seeds. 

- Initiation of the Plant Protection Department responsible for regular checks for pests, giving guidance and conducting aerial pesticide sprays. 

- Providing financial aid to farming communities. 



Sustainable Agricultural Development: 

• For sustainability following steps can be taken: 

- Environmentally friendly technologies and the system must be developed. 

- Waterlogging salinity issues must be addressed. 

- The soil fertility measure must be taken seriously e.g. afforestation. 

- Cutting of forests must be stopped to prevent soil erosion. 

- Over cropping and multi-cropping should be prevented as it can exhaust soil nutrients. 

- Organic farming should be encouraged as it can make the soil more productive. 

- Irrigation systems must be used to reclaim desert areas to agriculture.

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