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OLevel

Pakistan Studies 2059

Population and Employment

Paper-2

Population and Employment

Structure & Growth


Reasons for Population Increase:


Rate of Natural Increase = Birth Rate - Death Rate

• Child labour is associated with the increase in population as more children can bring more money home.

• The span of reproductivity increases because of early age marriages.

• On a religious basis, family planning programs have received resistance from religious groups.

• People’s desire to conceive a son led to more population.

• The refugees from Afghanistan also contributed to the rapid growth of the population.

• Lack of literacy since people do not understand the causes of population growth.

• Government's inconsistent policies.

Problems Faced Because of Population Growth:

• Unemployment and underemployment.

• No security for food.

• Increased workload on health facilities including medicines, hospitals, and doctors.

• Shortage of water, electricity, educational institutions.

• Increase in child labour.

• It burdens housing facilities as well as transport resources.

• Increase in terrorism and crime rate.

Efforts Needed for Balanced Population Growth:

• Awareness programs should be started by the Government and NGOs regarding the bad influences of having more children in urban and rural areas both.

• Affordable contraceptives should be provided to the people.

• Child labour should be banned to discourage people from having more children. 

• The necessary measures should be taken for the increase in literacy rate.

• Emphasis should be put on the promotion of female education.

The Demographic Transition Model:


Stage 1 (1905 – 1935):

• The birth rate and death rate both were high during this period.

• The population growth was slow.

Stage 2 (1936 – 1970):

• During this period, the birth rate was high.

• However, the death rate became slow because of an increase in medical & health facilities.

Stage 3 (1971 – 2013):

• There was a decrease in birth rate because of literacy, career-oriented females and family planning programs.

• The death rate was also low.

• The living standard was improved.

Stage 4 (2014 – 2040):

• If the birth rate and death rate remain slow then Pakistan will achieve a stable stage.

Population Structures:


• Population structure is usually represented using population pyramids.

• It is the percentage of males and females in various age groups.

• It indicates the following stats:

- High birth rate resulting in high dependency.

- Low death rate.

- The minor increase in life expectancy.

Effect on Economy & Development by Present Day Population Structure:

• An increase in birth rate puts the burden on the country's economic resources leading to negative economic growth.

• To meet the basic needs, Pakistan needs to start many development projects.

• The age group (15 to 60 years) with less population also negatively affects the economy.

• Pakistan is having a high population proportion of old people that can further burden the economy.

Pakistan’s Projected Population Structure:

• In the next 20 years, Pakistan will experience a further downfall in the birth rate and death rate.

• Age growth (15 to 75 years) will comprise a larger proportion of fulfilling the need for skilled labour.

• The high aged population will still be a burden, but they can be a guide to young people too.

• The lower birth rate will also decrease the dependency rate.

Employment


• It is defined as the individuals who are ten years or above and worked for an hour from the reference period.

• These individuals are known as self-employed or paid-employed.

• The employed workforce can be divided into the following three sectors:

- Primary Sector

- Secondary Sector

- Tertiary Sector

Primary Sector:

• The labour force involved in the primary sector is responsible for extracting raw materials from the sea or earth.

• It accumulates to 45% of the employed individuals.

Secondary Sector:

• It is the workforce that processes and manufactures raw materials.

• It accumulates to 14% of the labour force.

Tertiary Sector:

• It is the sector that deals with services including banking, administration, education, and others.

• It accumulates to 41% of the workforce.

Unemployment:

• It represents the individual who is unable to find a paid job.

Disguised Unemployment:

• It is when the number of workers is greater than the needed workers.

Causes of Unemployment:

• Unemployment is a consequence of authorities' inability to create the needed opportunities for the skilled and unskilled workforce.

• It creates a huge gap between demand and supply of labour force.

• Disguised unemployment in the primary sector makes it a challenge to come up with an actual figure of the demand and supply.

• High population growth.

• Changing technologies.

• Rural-urban migration.

• Political instability.

How Literacy & Training can Solve Unemployment Issue?

• Improved literacy rates will reduce pressure on the primary sector.

• Literate workers can work more efficiently as compared to unskilled and illiterate workers.

• If literate workers can meet the specialized labour demand than there will be no demand and supply gap.

• Trained and skilled workers can find better opportunities locally and abroad.

• Literate workers will also understand the importance of a quality lifestyle and having a small family.

Employment Generation Through Literacy & Training:

Agricultural:

• Agricultural training institutions should be established.

• Agriculture should be taught as a primary subject in these institutions.

• In these institutions, practical training must be given with the help of model farms.

• Workshops should be helpful for the technical training of repairing agricultural machinery.

• Training centers for cottage industries should also be established.

Industrial:

• Specialized training must be given considering manufacturer requirements.

• In the training, basic knowledge about the plant and its functions must be provided.

• The training must also guide people about the maintenance of machinery and plant.

• The necessary emergency and safety procedures must be taught.

• They must be taught the handling of advanced machinery with practical demonstration.

• Trainees should be facilitated to acquire international standard training from abroad.

• The managers of these plants must be given training regarding the management.

Effects of Unemployment on Economic Development:

• It results in low GDP and GNP because fewer people are generating income.

• The high unemployment rate also results in low wages and salaries i.e. less tax collection.

• It decreases the production growth of goods as demand also decreases because of employment.

• Because low-income generation, the government often increases the rate of tax collection.

• It reduces government funds and as a result foreign and local investment also reduces.

• Unemployment also increases the dependency rate.
 

Density & Movement of Population


Factors Affecting the Distribution and Density of Population:

• The natural topography affects the population i.e. people prefer to live on flat or undulating terrains or at doabs.

• People prefer moderate temperatures and rainfall.

• The soil that is fertile, deep and spread by rivers also attracts population.

• People prefer constant water supply, therefore, areas close to rivers and lakes have a high population.

• People prefer natural routes including the confluence of valleys, mountain gaps, and natural harbors.

• The efficient transport including rail, road, and air also attracts people to settle down.

• The supply of HEP and thermal stations.

• Government policies, port facilities, and tourism development are also some factors that affect the population.

• People like to live in areas that have better accommodation, health, and education facilities.

Migration:

• The movement of people from one location to another is called migration.

• Migration can be international or internal.

• Internal migration happens within the country e.g. movement of people from rural to the urban area.

• International migration involves the movement of people to other countries.

• Pakistan is facing a rise in rural to urban migration.

Rural Push Factors:

• Unemployment, the burden on land and ownership and division of land among sons.

• The poor quality of life and overpopulation.

• Less food production and the issues of waterlogging, salinity and soil erosion.

• The rise of mechanization resulted in unemployment.

• Natural disasters e.g. floods.

Urban Pull Factors:

• The urban areas have better employment opportunities.

• The urban areas offer an improved lifestyle.

• It has more food sources.

• The entertainment factor also attracts people there.

• It has better civic services e.g. education, health, transport, etc.

Influence of Rural-Urban Migration:

• Due to increase movement to urban areas, the living condition has deteriorated.

• The health hazards in cities have increased as well as the slums.

• The civic services are also overburdened.

• Water, land and air pollution has increased.

• The traffic situation is worsened.

• The crime rate and terrorism have increased.

• Depression, child abuse, drug usage has become a common problem.

• The suicide rate because of unemployment has also increased.

• The gender-balanced has been disturbed in both urban and rural areas.

Self-Help Scheme:

• It is usually a government-sponsored program.

• It encourages people to create self-employment and growing their food.

Advantages:

• It offers shelter to low-income families and helps in reducing poverty.

• It motivates people to take responsibility for cleaning the area resulting in a healthy environment.

• People are promoted and provided with financial aid to start their businesses as well as to improve their standard of living.

• People take care of their areas' security, as a result, the crime rate reduces.

• Recreational facilities can be built.

• In localities like this, NGOs also provide their share of help and support.

Disadvantages:

• Construction material is very expensive leading to failure of these schemes.

• Low-income families don't have savings to contribute to these schemes.

• Corruption is high in these schemes.

• These schemes are very slow as there are financial constraints and administration delays.

• These projects lack good leadership.

• These schemes also attract more rural to urban migration.

• Government changes as well as political stability effects or delay these schemes.

Reasons for Out-Migration from Pakistan:

• The lack of employment opportunities.

• The rise of development projects in the Middle East during the 80s and 90s.

• The high standard lifestyle of foreign countries like the USA.

• The increase in crime rate and corruption in Pakistan.

• Canada is under the threat of depopulation and its policy is attracting more people from countries like Pakistan to migrate.

• The political tensions.

Effects of Out-Migration:

• Increase in remittance.

• Improvement in Information Technology.

• Pressure on limited employment relieved.

• Increased investment in Pakistan by overseas Pakistanis.

• Cultural interchange.

Causes of Seasonal Migration:

• The practice of Transhumance in the north-western and northern areas of Pakistan.

• During the drought season, there is a shortage of food and employment; people migrate to urban areas during this time.

• During flood season, people migrate to safe locations.

• During the harvesting season, people migrate to farms in search of employment.

• Agro-based factories also hire workers on a seasonal basis.

Sustainable Population Growth:

• A population can be supported by the country’s economic resources all year round in known as the sustainable population.

How can it be maintained?

• By starting awareness programs regarding the consequences of the rapid growth of population.

• By attaining resource and population balance.

• By promoting family planning programs.







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