After the conquest of Mecca, in the 10th year of Hijri, our holy Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him) intended to visit Mecca to perform Hajj. He, along with his companions, reached Mecca. In the plain of Arafat, our holy Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him) addressed the people which is considered as the last sermon of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him). This sermon had great knowledge and instructions for the humankind to live life. The rights of women, children, and slaves were also discussed in this sermon.
He asked the people to listen to them carefully as it might be the last time of him to come here. In his sermon, he focused on the holiness of life.
He said: “People listen to me as I explain to you, for I don’t know whether I will ever meet you again in this place after this year”.
At the start of the sermon. he advised all of them to offer Pray regularly, to pay Zakat, to do fasting in Ramazan and to perform Hajj if possible.
“O people, listen to me in earnest, worship Allah, say your five daily prayers (Salah), fast during the month of Ramadan, and give your wealth in Zakat. Perform Hajj if you can afford to”.
In this address, he prohibited the interest in the actual amount of loan (Riba). He started it from his own family and waived the interest of Hazrat Abbas bin Abdulmutallab. He said that “All the previous interests are forbidden and first interest I waive of is of my family member Abbas bin Abdulmutallab”. He insisted to get back just the actual amount of the loan given.
He also said that there are two things i.e. the Holy Quran and his Sunnah which can prevent us from misguiding. He said that “O people! I am leaving behind me two things (the holy Quran and Sunnah), if you follow these you will never go astray.”
After that, he discussed the rights of women and men respectively.
“O, people! You have rights over your wives and your wives have rights over you. Treat your wives with kindness. Verily! You have taken them on the security of Allah”.
He also discussed the rights of the slaves as well. He asked to behave them like a human and provide them food and clothes as we use.
“Feed your slaves as you feed yourselves and clothe your slaves as you clothe yourselves.”
He also made clear in his sermon that all the Muslims are equal and no one has preference over others as we all are children of Adam and Eve.
“Remember that all Muslims are brothers. The only superiority is on the basis of good actions. No Arab has preference over a non-Arab or a non-Arab over an Arab or a white over a black nor a black over white”.
When our Holy Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him) ended his sermon, some ayat revealed on him as
“This day I have perfected your religion, completed the favor upon you and have chosen Islam as your religion”.