Life of Hazrat Usman as the Third Caliph

IGCSE

HUMANITIES & SOCIAL SCIENCES

Islamiyat

Notes

Life of Hazrat Usman as the Third Caliph

Life of Hazrat Usman as the Third Caliph

Early Life 

Hazrat Usman bin Affaan was from a rich family of Makkah.  
He belonged to the Banu Ummaiyah Clan of Quresh. 
He is considered as the 5th person who accepted Islam.  
He holds three titles as Ghani, Zun Noorain and Jame ul Quraan  
He is called Zun Noorain as he married to the two daughters of our Holy Prophet, Muhammad (Peace be upon him). First, he married to Hazrat Ruquayyah (R.A.) and after her demise, with Hazrat Umme Kulsoom (R.A.).  
He was a literate person. It is because he was appointed as a scribe of the Holy Quran by the Holy Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him).  

Initial Service for Islam In His Pre-Caliph Life 

Two migrations: Hazrat Usman (R.A.) two times participate in the migration. First towards Abyssinia and then towards Medina.  
Zun Noorain: He married two daughters of our Holy Prophet (Peace be upon him). First with Hazrat Ruquayyah (R.A.) then after her sad demise, he married to Hazrat Umme Kulsoom (R.A.). 
• Because of his two marriages with the daughters of our Holy Prophet (Peace be upon him), he is called Zun Noorain, the person with two lights. 
Decency: He was famous for his decency and honor. Our Holy Prophet (Peace be upon him) liked his decency. Holy Prophet, Muhammad (Peace be Upon Him) once said that even angels respect and admire the decency of Usman (R.A.). 
Bait-e-Rizwan: In 6 AH, Holy Prophet, Muhammad (Peace be upon him) was proceeding to Makkah when he heard that people of Makkah are preparing themselves for war, he asked Hazrat Usman to start negotiation with them.  
Then a rumor broke out that Usman was Martyred by Quresh. At this incident, the Holy Prophet, Muhammad (Peace be upon him) called his companions and took a pledge from them for the revenge of Usman’s martyrdom.  
This event is known as Bait–e-Rizwaan in the books of history.     
Generosity: The generosity of Hazrat Usman was famous all over the Makkah and Medina.  
He helped Muslims many times with his wealth. After migration to Medina, there was a scarcity of drinking water. Hazrat Usman purchased a well from a Jew and donated it to Muslims.   

Election as Caliph 

Hazrat Umar (R.A.) formulated a committee to finalize the name of the new caliph.  
One member of that committee met with various people of Medina. Following the suggestions and opinions of people of Medina, Hazrat Usman (R.A.)  was nominated as third Caliph of Muslims.  

Services as Caliph 

Compilation of the Holy Quran: When Hazrat Usman (R.A.) became caliph, the Islamic boundaries have been expanded to larger areas and many new areas were added in the Islamic territories.  
It has become important to compile the Holy Quran. Hazrat Usman (R.A.) took the responsibility and compiles the Holy Quran and sent one authentic copy with the seal of the caliph to different areas of the Islamic state. 
Established the first Muslim Navy: In the time of Hazrat Usman (R.A.), the first Muslim navy was established to help Muslim forces in water as well. 
Expansion of Kaaba: Although, the expansion of the Kaaba was started in the time of second caliph Hazrat Umar (R.A.) but completed in the era of Hazrat Usman (R.A.). 
Religious services: He constructed different mosques and appointed Moazzans to offer azans in these mosques.  
The salaries of Moazzans were given by the government. 
Economic and Welfare Reforms: Economic reforms which were started in the time of Hazrat Umar (R.A.), were continued in the time of Hazrat Usman (R.A.) as well.  
He also constructed many mosques, roads, and buildings. As the result of these reforms, prosperity came in the lives of the Muslims.  

Martyrdom of Hazrat Usman 

Hazrat Usman (R.A.) was an honored and decent person. He has never been in favor of bloodshed in the city of Medina. 
Rebels entered in Medina when people of Medina were visiting Makkah for Hajj.  
They entered the house of Hazrat Usman and brutally attacked on him and Martyred when Hazrat Usman was reciting the Holy Quran.     

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